GiellaLT Documentation

GiellaLT provides rule-based language technology aimed at minority and indigenous languages

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The preprocessor file is common to all languages. It should be parametrised, certain languages, such as Skolt Saami and Haida, have very deviant orthographic conventions when it comes to punctuation marks.

Using Hfst as a preprocessor

Using Hfst, one can tokenise («preprocess»), analyse and print the output in VISLCG3 format, all in one go, and everything using a single transducer. This will handle multiword expressions properly, including all inflections of them. This setup replaces the older, Perl-based solution for the Xerox tools.

The new command is as follows:

    cat testfile.txt | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tools/tokenisers/tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst| vislcg3 -g tools/tokenisers/mwe-dis.cg3 | cg-mwesplit | vislcg3 -g src/syntax/disambiguator.cg3

Overview and intro

This document describes how the preprocessing of the text into separate words is implemented in the project. The document contains overall description of the preprocessing task and some implementation details.

The preprocessor is a Perl script called preprocess, it is located in $GTHOME/gt/script/. It takes text as input and produces a list of words (tokens) separated by newlines. The preprocessor has two main functions: it cuts the the text into sentences and sentences into tokens (words and other units such as numerical expressions and punctuation). Sentence delimiters and most of the punctuation are treated as separate tokens.

The output of the preprocessor is a list of tokens separated by newline. The list of tokens is input to the morphological parser. (See the flowchart of the parsing process; if you are using Hfst (see above), the flowchart is outdated: all steps up to the vislcg3 step is collapsed into one.) The parser gives each token a morphological analysis, a set of tags. For the analysis to be succesful, the preprocessor must be compatible with the parser; the preprocessor should produce tokens that are recognized by the parser. This means that for example multiword expressions like “earret eará” have to be recognized as a single token (not as two separate words) both by the preprocessor and the parser. To achieve this, the lexicon entries of “special” tokens, such as punctuation, abbreviations and multiword expressions are planned parallel with the preprocessor (see the section Abbreviations and the lexical files).

Dividing text to sentences

The text is divided to sentences according to sentence-delimiters (?,! and .); the question mark and exlamation mark are always sentence-delimiters, but each full stop is examined separately. Full stop may belong to an abbreviation that may or may not end the sentence. Similarly, a full stop that ends a numeral expression is sentence-delimiter only if the next word starts with a capital letter.

When a full stop that belongs to an abbreviation can be considered to be a sentence delimiter as well, an extra full stop is added to mark the sentence boundary. The sentence boundaries are relevant information later in CG. For example:

Vuođđologut (lohkosánit) leat: okta, guokte, golbma jna. Sulliilogu sánit leat: moadde, máŋga jna.

The abbreviations are divided to three types according to their behaviour with other words. Some abbreviations which are followed by a capitalized word cannot be considered to end a sentence, see abbreviation section.

The corpus database used in the project contains additional paragraph marking and the end of paragraph is marked with ¶ in the input to the preprocessor. The paragraph end is at the same time a sentence end and makes it possible to consider e.g. titles as “sentences”. The paragraph end mark sometimes adds an extra dot to the preprocessor output, sometimes it is recognized only later in the CG, these functions should be unified.


The string that is given to the preprocessor is divided into tokens, which are the basic processing units used in the lexical analysis. There are four types of tokens: words, multiword expressions, numerical expressions and punctuation. Numerical expressions consist of numbers, dates, time, prices, etc. Words include abbreviations. The punctuation that does not belong to any of the mentioned expressions, forms its own class, which includes for example {}[]()?!;”

The starting point is that a string surrounded by space is one token. A string that consist only of alphabetical characters surrounded by space is always an instance of one word token, if it does not belong to a multiword expressions. So if two words are accidentally typed without separating space, it is an error that’s not accounted for. Word tokens may contain some punctuation, such as hyphen: Davvi-Norga.

The punctuation that occurs in the text is divided to two classes: 1. those that are inseparable part of a word or numeric expression and 2. those that are independent. Independent punctuation may split the input string into two or more parts. For example the string (gielddat/guovllut). will be divided into six parts: both parentheses are their own tokens as well as the dot. Both words and the slash are also separate tokens. The preprocessor output is thus:


The splitting depends on the surrounding characters. For example, a dot rarely splits a numerical expression into two but generally splits a string that consist only of alphabetical characters (1.4.2004, Minä lähdin.En tule takaisin.). The treatment of punctuation is explained in detail later in the document.

The preprocess script

The preprocessor is a perl-script called preprocess; it reads STDIN for input. The preprocessor is given one command line parameter, the file from where to read the formerly generated list of abbreviations and multiword expressions. The file is created by make and the name is abbr.txt. Usage (with sme as an example):

preprocess --abbr=$GTCORE/langs/sme/src/syntax/abbr.txt

The output of the script is a list of analyzable tokens, separated by newline.

The text is handled one paragraph at a time (paragraphs end when two subsequent newlines are encountered). If there are no paragraphs in the text, the whole input is slurped in in one go. The newlines are replaced with space and the paragraph is treated as a single line. The line is divided using space (tab, newline) as a separator and the elements stored into an array. Example:

First read the text. (Then split by space.)


The elements in the array are processed one at the time. The element may consist of two or more tokens, the tokens are stored in an array. First, the punctuation preceding and not belonging to the token is removed and stored to the tokens array. This class of punctuation includes {}[]()?!;,'\". If the remaining part starts with an alphabetical character optionally preceded by one non-word character, it is considered to be a word token. Otherwise it is a numerical expression.

The word tokens are tested against the list of multiword expressions. The punctuation at the end of the word that does not belong to the token is stored to the tokens array. The word may be divided to several tokens if it contains delimiters such as /.

If the word contains a dot, it is tested against the list of abbreviations to see if the dot is a sentence delimiter or belongs to the token. The treatment of the numerical expressions differ in that most of the punctuation, such as /, is considered to be part of the token. The dot that follows a number is considered to be a sentence delimiter if the following word starts with a capital letter. Otherwise the dot belongs to the token which may be an ordinal number, date etc.

There are some constant variables that affect to the preprocessing, here are the current values:

$SINGLE_PUNCT contains:  «»‹›“”„‘’‚ ´`'" |{}[]()?!,;/\ … and • ¶
$CONTAIN_PUNCT = 'ja\/dahje|http|:\/\/|km\/h|www|@|\.jpg|\.doc|\.pdf|\.html|\.txt';

$MULTIWORD_SIZE defines the size of a multiword expression, i.e. how many words should be included in testing if the expression is a multiword. The constant $SINGLE_PUNCT contains all the punctuation that is considered to be individual tokens in the beginning or end of a word or numeral expression. In non-numeral expression, the punctuation in variable $SINGLE_PUNCT is searched also in the middle of the word, thus splitting it (“gielddat/guovllut”). The word tokens that contain punctuation which belongs to the token are defined in the constant $CONTAIN_PUNCT. This constant is currently the only language dependent part of the script.


As most of the punctuation in a numerical expression is inseparable part of it, the numerical expressions are treated as a separate class. The punctuation in other strings generally causes the string to be splitted, but not always, depending on the punctuation mark. In the following table, the punctuation marks are listed:

Punctuation Numerical expressions (digits and non-word characters) Words (word characters, no digits)
(){}[]– «»‹›“”„‘’‚ ´`’”?!,;\… • ¶ Always their own tokens. Always their own tokens.
: Belongs to the expression if not followed by space (14:30, 10:s) Belongs to the expression if not followed by space (Namdal:as)
/ Belongs to the expression (5/2004) Always its own token (gielddat/guovllut). Exceptions: ja/dahje which is treated as one token; html-addresses, file names etc.
-, – Belongs to the expression, also when surrounded by spaces (1-3, 1 - 3) Belongs to the expression (Davvi-Norga), but not in the beginning of the word.
. Belongs to the expression unless it is a sentence delimiter. Its own token. Exception: belongs to an abbreviation and does not end the sentence.
_*+= Belongs to the expression Always its own token
% Belongs to the expression, also when separated by space (50%, 50 %) Always its own token


The abbreviations are divided in three classes according to whether they are able to end the sentence or not. The first class contains transitive abbreviations (TRAB) that never end the sentence. The intransitive abbreviations (ITRAB) are considered to end the sentence whenever they are followed by a capital letter or number. The third class (TRNUMAB) contains abbreviations that end the sentence when followed by a capital letter but not when followed by number. In addition, there is a class for abbreviations that are homonyms for common nouns (NOAB), these expressions are treated as abbreviations only when they are in the middle of the sentence, that is, when followed by lowercased letter or punctuation. In sum:

To make the preprocessor handle abbreviations and multiword expressions better than the default, one can provide an abbreviation file to it. There is a Makefile target for that. This target extracts abbreviations and multiword expressions from the lexc code, classifies abbreviations according to behaviour in the sentence, and expands the multiword expressions in all cases.

To build the abbreviation list to be used by preprocess, do as follows:

./configure --enable-abbr
cd tools/tokenisers
make abbr

Now there is a new abbr.txt file in that dir, and you can specify it as an option to the preprocess command. See further notes above.

Multiword expressions

The preprocessor takes into account multiword expressions if they are listed in the file abbr.txt. For example, names such as ‘De Silva’ can be listed as multiword expressions, they are not splitted but treated as tokens. At the moment, the size of a multiword expressions may be three words.

Listing abbreviations and multiword expressions

All the abbreviations are extracted from the lexicon files. They are extracted from the file as a part of the compilation process make. The relevant commands are stored to the Makefile in the gt/lang/src directory. The script that handles the extraction is called and located in the gt/script directory; it is intended to be a language-independent script.

The main source is abbreviations.lexc, where the real abbreviations are listed. There also exists a number of multi-word expressions which are dispersed to different lexicon files, for example the file adverbs.lexc contains multi-word adverbials like earret eará. Not to mention the propernoun lexicon, which contains several multiword propernouns.

In order to be able to treat the multi-word expressions as single tokens already at the preprocessing phase, the multi-word expressions are extracted from the lexicon files. The relevant lexicon file names are given to the script $GTHOME/gt/script/abbr-extract by the Makefile (NOTE: NOT IMPLEMENTED YET, dec 2013). There are no restrictions to how to list the multiword expressions, they can be used in lexicon files as other tokens. Only the structure of the file abbreviations.lexc is restricted.

Usage of the script abbr-extract:

abbr-extract --output=<file> --abbr_lex=<file> --lex=<file1,file2,..>

The structure of abbreviations.lexc

The structure of the abbreviations.lexc is free in all the other respects but the extracted part must have the following syntax:

abbr  TAG ;  TAG ;
ab  TAG ;
abbr% abbr TAG ;

And the same to the other abbreviation classes, LEXICON TRAB, LEXICON TRNUMAB and LEXICON NOAB. The ordering of the abbreviation classes is free.

Due to xfst, abbreviation may not contain dots (operator in xfst). The pattern matching in the preprocessor is always done without the dot. It is possible to add the dot to the abbreviation again in the lex-file.

The space in multiword abbreviations is marked in the lexicons by the %-sign (literal operator) which is recognized by abbr-extract-script and removed.

Abbreviations in abbreviations.lexc are lower-cased unless there exists only upper cased version of the abbreviation. abbr-extract-script generates upper case versions of all the abbreviations (since they may begin the sentence).



There is a primitive XML-support in the preprocessor. XML-tags are recognized and they can be excluded or included to the output. Choose the option –xml to accept xml-formatted input. Each XML-tag is printed on its own line. With option –no-xml-out, the XML-tags are supprsessed. The XML-support is called ‘primitive’, since the parsing of XML-tags is not done using any library functions. Therefore, the XML-formatting must be quite clear to function.


It is possible to preserve space during the tokenization with optin –space. The space between tokens is preserved and printed in their own lines, for example:

    leat: okta, guokte, golbma jna.
    < >
    < >
    < >
    < >

It is also possible to preserve newlines in the output, there is a variable in the script that can be changed. If the option –xml is used together with space preserving, also the space between xml-tags is preserved. On the other hand, if the option –no-xml-out is used, the space that precedes the xml-tag is swallowed.

Space preservation is implemented so that each token forms a complex unit: the word is paired with the space that preceded it. The space is preserved also when tokens are combined to multiword expressions.


In some cases, we want to fix the common typos in the texts. The list can be provided to preprocessor with option –corr=<file>. Typos are a tab separated list:


Each typo is replaced in the text by its correction. Typos and their corrections may be multiword expressions.

Connecting expressions

There is a class of expressions that connect other expressions to form complex tokens. This is for example expressions like ‘fisk- og vilthandelen’. These kind of expressions are generic and cannot be listed in multiword expressions. At the moment, specifically this type of complex token is handled with option –connect=<exp1,exp2,..>, where the words that are used as connectives can be listed.

Possible flaws

Abbreviations may be followed by capital letter even when not ending the sentence

Siellä oli Pekka ym. Mäkisiä.


Siellä oli Pekka ym. Mäkinen ei tullut.