GiellaLT provides an infrastructure for rule-based language technology aimed at minority and indigenous languages, and streamlines building anything from keyboards to speech technology.

View GiellaLT on GitHub

Page Content

Dependency tree

Se also seperate pages on compound, semantic, syntactic and morphological tags.

By means of the dependency parser found in the file dependency.cg3 the CG output is turned into dependency trees. The root, which does not have a head to depend on, is marked by the number 0. The element that depends on the head is marked by an arrow pointing at 0 (“->0”). Each token gets a number (#) and the a dependency link specifying a target head (->). The second word in the sentence for example receives the number 2. If it is a dependent of the root, it gets the tag (“#2->0”). The CG verb tags are substitued with other tags. Here is an example taken from North Saami, Muitaleastte fal munnje goas doavttir sáhttá boahtit (“Now, tell me when the doctor will be able to come”):

    "muitalit" V* TV Der2 Der/easti <mv> V Imprt Sg2 @FMV #1->0 
    "fal" Adv @<ADVL #2->1 
    "mun" Pron Pers Sg1 Ill @<ADVL #3->1 
    "goas" Adv @ADVL> #4->7 
    "doavttir" N Sg Nom @SUBJ> #5->6 
    "sáhttit" <aux> V IV Ind Prs Sg3 @FS-STA #6->1 
    "boahtit" <mv> V IV Inf @FS-IMV #7->6 
    "." CLB #8->8 

     /    \     \     
   fal  munnje   \
                /   \
        doavttir    boahtit.

Our dependency structure is based upon a compromise between the Saami grammatical tradition and the conventions used within the visl project.

Verb tags

The Saami disambiguation file disambiguator.cg3 adds dependency tags to each cohort. The CG verb tags are substituted with these tags:

There are main verbs and auxiliary verbs.

In main clauses: Finite main verb and auxiliary verb, and infinite main verb and auxiliary verb.

@FS is a finite verb in a subclause. The first one in a subclause which functions as a statement, the latter one in a relative subclause.

These are infinite main verbs and auxiliary verbs in an ordinary subclause and in a relative subclause.

This tag helps in coordination contexts.

Dependency tags alphabetically

Dependency tags look different from syntactic grammar tags.


Here are some examples of our coordination-analysis:

"Náhkiin sii gorro roavgguid, dorkkaid ja gápmagiid."
From the skin they were sewing furs, coats and shoes.

                  /  |  \     
            Náhkiin  sii roavgguid,
                          /   \
                  doarkkaid  gápmagiid.

 "Bárdni válddii niibbi ja čuohpai ráiggi sehkkii ja luittii mánáid olggos."
 The boy took the knife and cut a hole in the bag and let the children out.
                  /   /   \    \
            Bárdni niibbi  \   luittii
                     |   čuohpai  |   \
                    ja    /  |  mánáid olggos.
                         /   |     
                    ráiggi sehkkii

Complex sentences

Here are some examples:

"Jus stállu vuoitá, de son goddá olbmo."
If `Stállu' wins, he kills the person.

                   / |    \   \
                Jus stállu de  \ 
                             /   \
                           son   olbmo.

"Dasto don it beasa ruoktot jus borat min luhtte."
Then you don't manage to get home if you eat at our place.

                                   it __
                                 / |    \
                              don beasa  \         
                                 /   \    \ 
                            Dasto ruoktot  borat
                                           |  \
                                         jus luhtte.

No finite verb in the the second main clause:
"Vuos galgá liinna seaktit, de suohpput ja nuppi iđida fas geassit dan."
First one should put bait on the line, then cast it, and on the next morning take it inn again.

                             seaktit, ___________
                            /  |  \  \            \
                     Vuos liinna de suohpput   geassit
                                        |       /  |  \
                                       ja     iđeda fas dan.

No verb in the main clause: 
"Ovdal buorida Ipmil dálkkiidis go neavrres olmmoš dábiidis."
Rather does God improve the weather than a miserable person his habits.

                                buorida _______
                               / |   \           \
                          Ovdal Ipmil dálkkiidis  \
                                              /   |    \
                                            go neavrres dábiidis.


Punctuation such as “.”, “,” and “;” also receive dependency tags. The sentence “Arvigoahtá. - It starts raining” actually consists of two elements, the finite verb and the punctuation. The full stop is also interpreted as a dependent of the root “#2->0”.

Arguments and adjuncts

Subcategorized arguments such as “beatnagis - of the dog” in the sentence “Balat go beatnagis? - Are you afraid of the dog” are interpreted as dependents of the finite verb. Right now, we do not distinguish between sentence adverbials (adjuncts) and subcategorized arguments. “Odne - today” in “Odne arvá. - Today, it rains.” is also interpreted as a dependent of the verb.