GiellaLT Documentation

GiellaLT provides rule-based language technology aimed at minority and indigenous languages

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On the bottom of this page is a list with all tags in alphabetical order.


All the words are analysed with dictionary form + grammatical tags. Each tag is introduced with a “+” sign. We thus have

biilla biila+N+Sg+Acc
boađán boahtit+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1

Note that you have to add the part of speech twice when you use the derivational tag:

boradišgohten boradit+V+Der/InchL+V+Ind+Prt+Sg1

The main parts of speech (POS) for North Sámi are:

Nouns (+N), adjectives (+A), verbs (+V), pronouns (+Pron), adverbs (+Adv), particles (+Pcle), subjunctions (+CS), conjunctions (+CC), postpositions (+Po), prepositions (+Pr) and interjections (+Interj).

The nouns

The string is +N+(Subclass)+(Semclass)+Number+Case(+Possessivesuffix)(+Clitic)”. The word form biilasgo is thus analysed as biila+N+Sem/Veh+Sg+Gen+PxSg3+Qst.

Here is a list of the nominal tags, given in the same order as for the analysis. Note that the grammatical categories in parentheses can be omitted.

Part of speech +N
Subclass +Prop, +G3, +NomAg
Semantic class +Sem/Hum, +Sem/Plc, +Sem/Veh (see list)
Number +Sg, +Pl
Case +Ess +Nom +Gen +Acc +Ill +Loc +Com
(Possessive suffix) +PxSg1 +PxSg2 +PxSg3 +PxDu1 +PxDu2 +PxDu3 +PxPl1 +PxPl2 +PxPl3
(Clitic) +Qst +Foc/

The adjectives

Used non-attributively the adjective resembles the noun:

Part of speech +A
(Grade) +Comp, +Superl
Number +Sg, +Pl
Case +Ess +Nom +Gen +Acc +Ill +Loc +Com
(Clitic) e.g. +Qst (see list)

Used attributively the adjective has a quite simple tag scheme:

Part of speech +A
Attribute +Attr
(Clitic) e.g. +Qst (see list)

The verbs

Finite and infinite verb forms have quite distinct paradigms. Finite first:

Part of speech +V
(Derivation) +Der/PassL, +Der/PassS, +Der/h (see list)
Mood +Ind, +Pot, +Cond, +Imprt
Tense +Prs, +Prt
Person/Number +Sg1 +Sg2 +Sg3 +Du1 +Du2 +Du3 +Pl1 +Pl2 +Pl3, +ConNeg
Clitic e.g. +Qst (see list)

Infinite verb forms:

Part of speech +V
(Derivation) +Der/PassL
Nominal verb form +Inf, +Act, +Ger, +PrsPrc, +PrfPrc, +VGen, +VAbess
(Clitic) e.g. +Qst (see list)

Other derived verb forms:

Part of speech +V
Part of speech +N
Derivation +NomAg
Number +Sg, +Pl
Case +Ess +Nom +Gen +Acc +Ill +Loc +Com
(Possessive suffix) +PxSg1 +PxSg2 +PxSg3 +PxDu1 +PxDu2 +PxDu3 +PxPl1 +PxPl2 +PxPl3

Here is an example: oahppit > oahppi+N+NomAg+Pl+Nom

The pronouns

The personal, demonstrative and interrogative pronouns:



underlying form: mun+Pron+Pers+Sg1+Com, surface form: muinna

The reflexive pronouns:

baseform+Pron+pronoun_type+Case(+possessive suffix)

Example: underlying form: ieš+Pron+Refl+Loc+PxDu1, surface form: alddáme

The indeclinable words

These have their POS tag as their only tag:

underlying form: birra+Pr or birra+Po, surface form: birra

Alphabetic list over the tags

Part of speech and subclass

Grammatical properties

Derivational suffix tags

Semantic tags

These are tags used for classifying names and nouns, e.g. +Prop+Sem/Fem

A critical discussion of some particular tags

Determiner or Pronoun

the POSs of words like buot, dat, etc. get different terms in the literature.


Vesa Guttorm:

Magga 1980:

Outi Kilpimaa: