Pite Sami NLP Grammar

Finite state and Constraint Grammar based analysers, proofing tools and other resources

View the project on GitHub giellalt/lang-sje

Page Content

  • Rules for collocations, multiword expressions etc.
  • Mapping rules
  • Adjectives !
  • Symbol affixes
  • Even syllabled verbs
  • Odd syllabled verbs
  • contracted verbs
  • Auxiliaries
  • Pite Sámi TWOLC file
  • Rules
  • Pite Sámi morphological analyser
  • Multichar_Symbols definitions
  • Key lexicon
  • Lexicon ENDLEX
  • File containing abbreviations
  • Pite Saami Adjectives
  • Adpositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Pite Saami Nouns
  • Pite Saami numerals
  • Pite Saami ProperNouns
  • Pite Saami Verbs
  • DELIMITERS
  • TAGS AND SETS
  • Pite Sami description

    All documents in one file

    Negation rules

    Agreement rules for subject NP

    choose relative pronoun when preceded by NP and not ending in Q-mark

    choose iterrogative pronoun when ending in Q-mark and NOT preceded by NP

    rule out imperative forms in questions

    rule out finite verbforms after infinitive verbform

    Agreement rule for verb triggered by PersPron

    Agreement rules for verb triggered by full NP

    Rules for collocations, multiword expressions etc.

    Mapping rules

    Mapping CC

    Mapping verbs

    Add language code


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/cg3/disambiguator.cg3 S Y N T A C T I C F U N C T I O N S F O R S Á M I

    Sámi language technology project 2003-2014, University of Tromsø #

    !!For Korp:

    Here we remove special tags for MT

    ! smeRemove removes the language tags , , etc, before proceeding to the dep file.

    Here we remove semantic tags for all other words than proper nouns.


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/cg3/korp.cg3

    Adjectives !

    Här är lexikon för adjektivsböjning. Först jämnstaviga, så uddastaviga, och sen kontrakta. Efteråt kommer morfologin, som också spiller över i nouns.lexc.


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/affixes/adjectives.lexc


    Symbol affixes


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/affixes/symbols.lexc


    Even syllabled verbs

    Odd syllabled verbs

    contracted verbs

    Auxiliaries


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/affixes/verbs.lexc



    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/compounding.lexc


    Pite Sámi TWOLC file

    This file documents the phonology.twolc file

    Rules

    Consonant gradation rules

    **Consonant Gradation for htt(j s):ht(j s)**

    Consonant Gradation for hxx:hx

    Consonant Gradation for xdn(j):xn(j)

    Consonant Gradation for xx:x

    Consonant Gradation for xxy:xy

    **Consonant Gradation for xxt(j s):xt(j s) **

    **Consonant Gradation for xxsj:xsj **

    Consonant Gradation for xy:y

    **Delete h in hx:y **

    **Intervocalic voiced plosives in hx:y **

    **Consonant Gradation for l/jbm:l/jm **

    **Consonant Gradation for nnjg:njg **

    **Consonant Gradation for vgŋ:vŋ **

    **Consonant Gradation for rdj:rj **

    Other consonant rules

    Final C Deletion

    Final devoicing

    **Word Final Simplification in -st **

    **Word-final De-Affricatization for tj **

    Vowel rules

    metaphony

    **Default VH **

    **Default VH for 4syllables **

    **Default UA in G3 **

    **Special UÄ (VH) in G3 **

    **Special VH for u^O **

    **Special VH for ie **

    **Ä in G3 **

    **Ä in G3 capitalized **

    **V2 E to I before j-suffixes **

    **V2 E to Á **

    **V2 E to Á before S or R **

    **V2 O to U **

    **Final V Deletion **


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/phonology.twolc


    Pite Sámi morphological analyser

    This file contains the tags and reference to main lexica

    Multichar_Symbols definitions

    POS

    Subclasses

    Morphosyntactic properties

    Verbal MSP

    Tense-mode

    Person-number

    Infinite forms

    Other tags

    Derivation tags

    Nominal MSP

    Case

    Semantic properties of names

    Pssessive suffixes

    Other tags

    Compounding tags

    The tags are of the following form:

    Normative/prescriptive compounding tags: (to govern compound behaviour for the speller, ie. what a compound SHOULD BE)

    The first part of the component may be ..

    Punctuation tags

    Morphophonological symbols

    Symbols for regulating the twolc file

    ^WG * weak grade ^G3 * marks grade three for stems w/o Cgrad ^V2E2AA * e to á (before j), o to u before j in V2 ^CDEL * Deleting final consonant, biednag ^VDEL * Deleting final V2 vowel in compounds or gájk ^MON * Monophthong in contract ^UAUML * uo to uä juolge / juällge ^IEUML * ie to ä etc. gielbar gællbara ^IUML * a to i, gallgat gillgin ^IJ * e to i in front of Plural j and Sg Com ^V2O2U * o to u in V2 (e.g. Ill.Sg, Dim, some N_ODD) etc. ^MONB4J * No rules for this one in twolc!

    Archiphonemes

    i2 * Variable vowel, does not trigger VH u2 * Variable vowel, does not trigger VH ä2 * Variable vowel, does not undergo (further) VH b2 d2 g2 t2 j2 * Variable consonants, undergo final devoicing or other alternations ^O * o but ä in uä

     »7       * »
     «7       * «
     %[%>%]   * >
     %[%<%]   * <
    

    Flag diacritics

    We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again: | @P.NeedNoun.ON@ | (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised | @D.NeedNoun.ON@ | (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised | @C.NeedNoun@ | (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

    For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm. | @P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ | Require that words tagged as such only appear first | @D.CmpPref.TRUE@ | Block such words from entering ENDLEX | @P.CmpPref.FALSE@ | Block these words from making further compounds | @D.CmpLast.TRUE@ | Block such words from entering R | @D.CmpNone.TRUE@ | Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding | @U.CmpNone.FALSE@ | Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding | @P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ | Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R | @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ | Disallow words coming directly from root.

    Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags. | @U.Cap.Obl@ | Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj. | @U.Cap.Opt@ | Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

    Key lexicon

    Lexicon Root starts the analyser and directs paths to all POS.

    Lexicon ENDLEX

    And this is the ENDLEX of everything:

    @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@@D.CmpPref.TRUE@@D.NeedNoun.ON@ # ; 
    

    The @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ flag diacritic is ued to disallow words tagged with +CmpNP/Only to end here. The @D.NeedNoun.ON@ flag diacritic is used to block illegal compounds.


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/root.lexc


    File containing abbreviations

    Lexica for adding tags and periods

    Splitting in 3 groups, because of the preprocessor

    Intransitive abbreviations

    Transitive abbreviations


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/abbreviations.lexc


    Pite Saami Adjectives

    Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/adjectives.lexc


    Adpositions


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/adpositions.lexc


    Adverbs


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/adverbs.lexc


    Conjunctions


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/conjunctions.lexc


    Pite Saami Nouns

    Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/nouns.lexc


    Pite Saami numerals


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/numerals.lexc


    Pronouns


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/pronouns.lexc


    Pite Saami ProperNouns

    Propernouns


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/sje-propernouns.lexc


    Pite Saami Verbs

    Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/fst/stems/verbs.lexc


    retroflex plosive, voiceless t ʈ 0288, 648 ( = ASCII 096) retroflex plosive, voiced d ɖ 0256, 598 labiodental nasal F ɱ 0271, 625 retroflex nasal n ɳ 0273, 627 palatal nasal J ɲ 0272, 626 velar nasal N ŋ 014B, 331 uvular nasal N\ ɴ 0274, 628

    bilabial trill B\ ʙ 0299, 665 uvular trill R\ ʀ 0280, 640 alveolar tap 4 ɾ 027E, 638 retroflex flap r ɽ 027D, 637 bilabial fricative, voiceless p\ ɸ 0278, 632 bilabial fricative, voiced B β 03B2, 946 dental fricative, voiceless T θ 03B8, 952 dental fricative, voiced D ð 00F0, 240 postalveolar fricative, voiceless S ʃ 0283, 643 postalveolar fricative, voiced Z ʒ 0292, 658 retroflex fricative, voiceless s ʂ 0282, 642 retroflex fricative, voiced z` ʐ 0290, 656 palatal fricative, voiceless C ç 00E7, 231 palatal fricative, voiced j\ ʝ 029D, 669 velar fricative, voiced G ɣ 0263, 611 uvular fricative, voiceless X χ 03C7, 967 uvular fricative, voiced R ʁ 0281, 641 pharyngeal fricative, voiceless X\ ħ 0127, 295 pharyngeal fricative, voiced ?\ ʕ 0295, 661 glottal fricative, voiced h\ ɦ 0266, 614

    alveolar lateral fricative, vl. K alveolar lateral fricative, vd. K\

    labiodental approximant P (or v) alveolar approximant r\ retroflex approximant r` velar approximant M\

    retroflex lateral approximant l` palatal lateral approximant L velar lateral approximant L
    Clicks

    bilabial O\ (O = capital letter) dental |
    (post)alveolar !\ palatoalveolar =\ alveolar lateral ||
    Ejectives, implosives

    ejective > e.g. ejective p p> implosive < e.g. implosive b b< Vowels

    close back unrounded M close central unrounded 1 close central rounded } lax i I lax y Y lax u U

    close-mid front rounded 2 close-mid central unrounded @\ close-mid central rounded 8 close-mid back unrounded 7

    schwa ə @

    open-mid front unrounded E open-mid front rounded 9 open-mid central unrounded 3 open-mid central rounded 3\ open-mid back unrounded V open-mid back rounded O

    ash (ae digraph) { open schwa (turned a) 6

    open front rounded & open back unrounded A open back rounded Q Other symbols

    voiceless labial-velar fricative W voiced labial-palatal approx. H voiceless epiglottal fricative H\ voiced epiglottal fricative <\ epiglottal plosive >\

    alveolo-palatal fricative, vl. s\ alveolo-palatal fricative, voiced z\ alveolar lateral flap l\ simultaneous S and x x\ tie bar _ Suprasegmentals

    primary stress “ secondary stress % long : half-long :\ extra-short _X linking mark -
    Tones and word accents

    level extra high _T level high _H level mid _M level low _L level extra low _B downstep ! upstep ^ (caret, circumflex)

    contour, rising contour, falling _F contour, high rising _H_T contour, low rising _B_L

    contour, rising-falling _R_F (NB Instead of being written as diacritics with _, all prosodic marks can alternatively be placed in a separate tier, set off by < >, as recommended for the next two symbols.) global rise global fall Diacritics

    voiceless 0 (0 = figure), e.g. n_0 voiced _v aspirated _h more rounded _O (O = letter) less rounded _c advanced _+ retracted _- centralized _” syllabic = (or _=) e.g. n= (or n=) non-syllabic _^ rhoticity `

    breathy voiced _t creaky voiced _k linguolabial _N labialized _w palatalized ‘ (or _j) e.g. t’ (or t_j) velarized _G pharyngealized _?\

    dental d apical _a laminal _m nasalized ~ (or _~) e.g. A~ (or A~) nasal release _n lateral release _l no audible release _}

    velarized or pharyngealized _e velarized l, alternatively 5 raised _r lowered _o advanced tongue root _A retracted tongue root _q


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/phonetics/txt2ipa.xfscript


    We describe here how abbreviations are in Pite Sami are read out, e.g. for text-to-speech systems.

    For example:


    This (part of) documentation was generated from src/transcriptions/transcriptor-abbrevs2text.lexc


    P I T E S A A M I G R A M M A R C H E C K E R

    DELIMITERS

    TAGS AND SETS

    Tags

    This section lists all the tags inherited from the fst, and used as tags in the syntactic analysis. The next section, Sets, contains sets defined on the basis of the tags listed here, those set names are not visible in the output.

    Beginning and end of sentence

    BOS EOS

    Parts of speech tags

    N A Adv V Pron CS CC CC-CS Po Pr Pcle Num Interj ABBR ACR CLB LEFT RIGHT WEB PPUNCT PUNCT

    COMMA ¶

    Tags for POS sub-categories

    Pers Dem Interr Indef Recipr Refl Rel Coll NomAg Prop Allegro Arab Romertall

    Tags for morphosyntactic properties

    Nom Acc Gen Ill Loc Com Ess Ess Sg Du Pl Cmp/SplitR Cmp/SgNom Cmp/SgGen Cmp/SgGen PxSg1 PxSg2 PxSg3 PxDu1 PxDu2 PxDu3 PxPl1 PxPl2 PxPl3 Px

    Comp Superl Attr Ord Qst IV TV Prt Prs Ind Pot Cond Imprt ImprtII Sg1 Sg2 Sg3 Du1 Du2 Du3 Pl1 Pl2 Pl3 Inf ConNeg Neg PrfPrc VGen PrsPrc Ger Sup Actio VAbess

    Err/Orth

    Semantic tags

    Sem/Act Sem/Ani Sem/Atr Sem/Body Sem/Clth Sem/Domain Sem/Feat-phys Sem/Fem Sem/Group Sem/Lang Sem/Mal Sem/Measr Sem/Money Sem/Obj Sem/Obj-el Sem/Org Sem/Perc-emo Sem/Plc Sem/Sign Sem/State-sick Sem/Sur Sem/Time Sem/Txt

    HUMAN

    PROP-ATTR PROP-SUR

    TIME-N-SET

    Syntactic tags

    @+FAUXV @+FMAINV @-FAUXV @-FMAINV @-FSUBJ> @-F<OBJ @-FOBJ> @-FSPRED<OBJ @-F<ADVL @-FADVL> @-F<SPRED @-F<OPRED @-FSPRED> @-FOPRED> @>ADVL @ADVL< @<ADVL @ADVL> @ADVL @HAB> @<HAB @>N @Interj @N< @>A @P< @>P @HNOUN @INTERJ @>Num @Pron< @>Pron @Num< @OBJ @<OBJ @OBJ> @OPRED @<OPRED @OPRED> @PCLE @COMP-CS< @SPRED @<SPRED @SPRED> @SUBJ @<SUBJ @SUBJ> SUBJ SPRED OPRED @PPRED @APP @APP-N< @APP-Pron< @APP>Pron @APP-Num< @APP-ADVL< @VOC @CVP @CNP OBJ

    -OTHERS SYN-V @X ## Sets containing sets of lists and tags This part of the file lists a large number of sets based partly upon the tags defined above, and partly upon lexemes drawn from the lexicon. See the sourcefile itself to inspect the sets, what follows here is an overview of the set types. ### Sets for Single-word sets INITIAL ### Sets for word or not WORD NOT-COMMA ### Case sets ADLVCASE CASE-AGREEMENT CASE NOT-NOM NOT-GEN NOT-ACC ### Verb sets NOT-V ### Sets for finiteness and mood REAL-NEG MOOD-V NOT-PRFPRC ### Sets for person SG1-V SG2-V SG3-V DU1-V DU2-V DU3-V PL1-V PL2-V PL3-V ### Pronoun sets ### Adjectival sets and their complements ### Adverbial sets and their complements ### Sets of elements with common syntactic behaviour ### NP sets defined according to their morphosyntactic features ### The PRE-NP-HEAD family of sets These sets model noun phrases (NPs). The idea is to first define whatever can occur in front of the head of the NP, and thereafter negate that with the expression **WORD - premodifiers**. ### Border sets and their complements ### Grammarchecker sets * * * This (part of) documentation was generated from [tools/grammarcheckers/grammarchecker.cg3](https://github.com/giellalt/lang-sje/blob/main/tools/grammarcheckers/grammarchecker.cg3)# Tokeniser for sje Usage: ``` $ make $ echo "ja, ja" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst $ echo "Juos gorreválggain lea (dárbbašlaš) deavdit gáibádusa boasttu olmmoš, man mielde lahtuid." | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst $ echo "(gáfe) 'ja' ja 3. ja? ц jaja ukjend \"ukjend\"" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst $ echo "márffibiillagáffe" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst ``` Pmatch documentation: <https://github.com/hfst/hfst/wiki/HfstPmatch> Characters which have analyses in the lexicon, but can appear without spaces before/after, that is, with no context conditions, and adjacent to words: * Punct contains ASCII punctuation marks * The symbol after m-dash is soft-hyphen `U+00AD` * The symbol following {•} is byte-order-mark / zero-width no-break space `U+FEFF`. Whitespace contains ASCII white space and the List contains some unicode white space characters * En Quad U+2000 to Zero-Width Joiner U+200d' * Narrow No-Break Space U+202F * Medium Mathematical Space U+205F * Word joiner U+2060 Apart from what's in our morphology, there are 1. unknown word-like forms, and 2. unmatched strings We want to give 1) a match, but let 2) be treated specially by `hfst-tokenise -a` Unknowns are made of: * lower-case ASCII * upper-case ASCII * select extended latin symbols ASCII digits * select symbols * Combining diacritics as individual symbols, * various symbols from Private area (probably Microsoft), so far: * U+F0B7 for "x in box" ## Unknown handling Unknowns are tagged ?? and treated specially with `hfst-tokenise` hfst-tokenise --giella-cg will treat such empty analyses as unknowns, and remove empty analyses from other readings. Empty readings are also legal in CG, they get a default baseform equal to the wordform, but no tag to check, so it's safer to let hfst-tokenise handle them. Finally we mark as a token any sequence making up a: * known word in context * unknown (OOV) token in context * sequence of word and punctuation * URL in context * * * This (part of) documentation was generated from [tools/tokenisers/tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmscript](https://github.com/giellalt/lang-sje/blob/main/tools/tokenisers/tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmscript) --- # Grammar checker tokenisation for sje Requires a recent version of HFST (3.10.0 / git revision>=3aecdbc) Then just: ``` $ make $ echo "ja, ja" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst ``` More usage examples: ``` $ echo "Juos gorreválggain lea (dárbbašlaš) deavdit gáibádusa boasttu olmmoš, man mielde lahtuid." | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst $ echo "(gáfe) 'ja' ja 3. ja? ц jaja ukjend \"ukjend\"" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst $ echo "márffibiillagáffe" | hfst-tokenise --giella-cg tokeniser-disamb-gt-desc.pmhfst ``` Pmatch documentation: <https://github.com/hfst/hfst/wiki/HfstPmatch> Characters which have analyses in the lexicon, but can appear without spaces before/after, that is, with no context conditions, and adjacent to words: * Punct contains ASCII punctuation marks * The symbol after m-dash is soft-hyphen `U+00AD` * The symbol following {•} is byte-order-mark / zero-width no-break space `U+FEFF`. Whitespace contains ASCII white space and the List contains some unicode white space characters * En Quad U+2000 to Zero-Width Joiner U+200d' * Narrow No-Break Space U+202F * Medium Mathematical Space U+205F * Word joiner U+2060 Apart from what's in our morphology, there are 1) unknown word-like forms, and 2) unmatched strings We want to give 1) a match, but let 2) be treated specially by hfst-tokenise -a * select extended latin symbols * select symbols * various symbols from Private area (probably Microsoft), so far: * U+F0B7 for "x in box" TODO: Could use something like this, but built-in's don't include šžđčŋ: Simply give an empty reading when something is unknown: hfst-tokenise --giella-cg will treat such empty analyses as unknowns, and remove empty analyses from other readings. Empty readings are also legal in CG, they get a default baseform equal to the wordform, but no tag to check, so it's safer to let hfst-tokenise handle them. Finally we mark as a token any sequence making up a: * known word in context * unknown (OOV) token in context * sequence of word and punctuation * URL in context * * * This (part of) documentation was generated from [tools/tokenisers/tokeniser-gramcheck-gt-desc.pmscript](https://github.com/giellalt/lang-sje/blob/main/tools/tokenisers/tokeniser-gramcheck-gt-desc.pmscript) ---